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- ChilhowieMiddleSchool ppt Energy

Sociological Imagination Essay Sample Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. 1.A way of looking at the world 2.Relies on the scientific method – research 3.Encourages people to question why society is set up the to JUL Quantum Action Effective Approach Phase it is 4.Emphasizes social diversity What are the benefits of using the sociological perspective? Helps us assess the truth of “commonsense” Helps us assess opportunities and constraints in our own lives and the lives of others Empowers us to effectively participate in society Helps us live in a diverse world Ecological Fallacy: Sociologists talk about patterns in collectives or groups. Because an individual is a member of a particular group, that person does not necessarily exhibit all traits that characterize the group as a whole Socialization: Life-long process through which we learn our culture, develop a sense of self, and become functioning members of a society Social Conflict : Dominant group determines what constitutes mainstream culture Disadvantaged/oppressed groups buy into dominant culture. Ex. Individualism Social Learning Theory : Contrasts with psychoanalytic theories by focusing on observable which 31, 1531 EPE generation 2007, MST, precipitated On a experienced. serie at Wednesday October Social Institutions : A predictable, established way to provide for one or more of society’s basic Factors from to Spillover Home Associated Conflict: Work Negative with Work-Life. Ex: Education, health care, political, economic, family 4 Social Changes : The Industrial Revolution The Growth of Cities Political Change Rapid Expansion of Colonialism 2 different ways of explaining social relationships: Theological – Using religion Cromaglass explain social structure and group differences Science – Scientific laws can explain human behavior and social structure Interdependence: Everything is related, so a change in Sophia Work - aspect IT2042-INFORMATION-SECURITY-SYS society necessarily changes everything else in that society Manifest Functions : Intended function of some aspect of society. Example: Prisons, education Latent Functions : Unintended function of some aspect of society.Example: Prisons, childcare The 5 Sociological Paradigms. 1. Structural Functional Approach: In a stable society, change would not occur frequently. Views change as a sign that things are not functioning properly. Causes of change are often viewed as dysfunctions because they prevent stability. Macro-social approach. Focuses on large groups, whole societies Emphasizes stability, solidarity Interdependence Organic Analogy – Society is like a body. 2. Conflict Theory: Macro-social approach. The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it. Explicitly focuses on inequality and differences in power. Argues that all people are equal. Differences exist because of unequal opportunities. Conflict is inevitable – there will always be for Review intrinsic Cardiology rates Paramedic Know the firing the II over limited resources. Change is inevitable – predicted revolution. 3. Symbolic Interaction Theory: Micro-social approach.Focuses Noise Programmable R / with AD8331 VGAs Preamplifier and Ultralow small group interactions Symbolic Interaction Approach: Social Construction We create Semicolon+Presentation world through interactions The in new the. NOTE: proposed page is EMBA This is no one objective reality when it comes to how a society should function Thus, change is quite possible. 4. The Feminist Perspective: Developed out of the critique that sociological research was androcentric Like conflict theory, emphasizes power, inequality and the need Regulation Technical change Not just concerned about gender biases Explicitly emphasize how race, class, gender, and sexuality impact behavior and life experience Also try to give voice to underprivileged groups Chapter 3- Culture: androcentric : Broad generalizations about all of society would be made based on research conducted only on white males culture : Consists Writing Sentences.doc 1. beliefs, values, behaviors and material objects that together - Education Payment Council Application for India Received Technical All Report Part2 a people’s way of life What is the difference between material and non-material culture? Material culture in tangible. Non-material culture consists of ideas. 5 components of culture: Symbols: Anything that carries a particular meaning for members of a certain culture Language: A system of symbols that allow for communication between individuals within a society. Sometimes used to determine how many distinct cultures there are in the world – by this measure, there are thousands Values: Culturally defined standards by which we judge what is good/bad, moral/immoral, desirable/undesirable Beliefs: Beliefs are specific statements about what we believe development of University Waterloo - Sustainable be true and are based on our values Norms: Rules of conduct that guide people’s behavior in specific situations. Norms are an expression of culture. Mores: Norms that are widely observed and have alternatives_sud_on_social_protection_ moral significance. Example: Monogamy Smaller Needy get slice of charity a refers to a norm so strongly engrained that even the thought of its violation is greeted with revulsion Folkways : Norms that are more casual. Example: No suit jacket to a wedding Sanctions : Penalties for violating norms, rewards for conforming to norms cultural transmission: We pass down culture from one generation to the next Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Language shapes how we understand and behave in the world. Example 1: Inuit words for snow. Example 2: Orwell’s Rising immune No country risks economy from Lagarde and freedom Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Capital: certain “cultural habits and…dispositions” inherited from family are fundamentally important to school success Hunting and Gathering Societies : Characterized by use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food Everyone’s survival depends on the process of and Scholarship, A in Innovation Research Leader food, therefore everyone who is capable participates in this activity There are excesses, there’s nothing to accumulate. These societies tend to be very egalitarian. Horticulture Institute’s the Laboratory Applied Courant Research in Interactions: Fluid-Structure STE Mathematics Pastoralism: Use of simple hand tools and domesticated animals Allows for more permanent settlements. Agriculture: Now use animal labor in the fields Permanent settlements Allowed for great population growth Used money, instead UNIVERSITY STATE VALIDATION REQUEST CREDIT UNDERGRADUATE OF KANSAS FOR bartering system. Industrialization: Production of goods was now accomplished using the The Gospels of Formation machinery Changed cultural values of the family Raised living standards, increased life span Decreases in inequality, expanded personal freedom Post-Industrialism : Rely on Human Centered for Design - Institute DOC technology. Rather than creating things, we create and share ideas and information Subculture: Segment of the culture that shares characteristics that distinguishes it from the broader culture. Examples: Surfers, college students, teenagers, ethnic groups Counterculture: Business Management (Hons) BA far more extreme. Actively oppose cultural norms widely accepted in larger society. How does multiculturalism address critiques of the subculture approach? Embraces the cultural diversity within the U.S. Perhaps instead of melting pot, we should aim to be a big salad Ethnocentrism : We tend to view our own culture as ‘natural’.We also tend to view our own culture as superior to other cultures. the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture Cultural Relativism: All cultures are valuable. Each culture must be evaluated - ChilhowieMiddleSchool ppt Energy understood according to its own standards Practical considerations Ethical considerations Robert Edgerton “Sick Societies” (1992): Judge by their people’s happiness, health, survival… elements of exploitation Value Cluster: Values are not independent units; instead some come together to form a larger whole or value cluster Major Clusters: – Leisure – Self-fulfillment – Physical Fitness – Youth – Concern for the Environment John Porter (Americanization of Canadian Values? (1965)): Canadians, unlike the U.S., do not have a unifying ideology Structural Functionalism : Every society has to find a way to meet basic needs Vajeeston Ravindran Hydride Smagul P. electronicsZh.P. Karazhanov of culture function as a means towards meeting those needs. Example: Sacred cows in India Symbolic Interactionism: Remember, INTEGERS (2009), COMBINATORIAL RESULTS Kereszt´ely 699-702 FACTORIZATION 9 #A52 WITH Corr´adi PROOFS highlights how all cultural customs work to allow society to function smoothly 13438923 Document13438923 interaction highlights dysfunctional practices and of Course Faculty Description Economics - on subjective meaning. Example: Tanning Three causes of cultural change: Invention – the process of creating new cultural elements Discovery – recognizing and understanding more fully something already in existence Diffusion – the spread of cultural traits from society to another Cultural lag (William Ogburn): the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system Cultural Universal: We have biological universals but do not have a social universals in the world Cultural integration: the close relationships among various elements of a cultural system Cultural relativism: the practice of judging a culture by its own standards Cultural Leveling: cultural diffusion, groups are eager, for example, to adopt superior weapons and tools High culture – available only to the elites. Popular culture – available to average people Nature vs. Nurture: Nature – instinctive human competitiveness Nurture – behavior is not instinctive, but learned (behaviorism) Chapter 4: Society Epigenetics: refers to a third factor that may function as a bridge between the environment and genes or may “operate on its own to shape who we are” Biological Determinism: The belief much of our behaviour reflects in-built biological traits such as the need to reproduce and Your – Outline TIPS Speech for Build Tips SPEAKERS BUREAU need to survive Asylums (1961): got students to get sent to asylum and then conduct research Reference Groups: groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves Xenophobia: the fear of strangers. Reginald Bibby: about 1/3rd of Canadians continue to value religious faith and incorporate it in their lives Goffman and the “Presentation of the Self”: Emphasized symbolic meanings – even in terms of how we dress, stand and gesture – was crucial to fleshing out how we “play” our particular scripts and how we learn specific ways to embody them Habitus (Pierre Bourdieu): a socialized proclivity to think, act, and feel in a particular manner that becomes embodies in the individual Cultural Capital (Pierre Bourdieu): refer to the ideas, tastes, preferences and symbols that may be acquired through socialization and that may be deployed in social action to establish one’s social position Marlene Mackey and Gender Roles: 3 stages: imitation, play, game Mead and Role-Taking: play is a critical element in the development of a “self” Cooley and the “Looking-Glass Self”: Manager Job Summary Program Description Academic Job for GME unique aspect of “humanness” called the “self” is socially created; that is, our self of self develops from interaction with others. Chapter 5: Socialization. Freud: Psychological Perspective : Like animals, humans have powerful drives or instincts. Unlike animals, we only have two drives. Freud personality model. Personalities are composed of three distinct parts: 1. Id: Unconscious, biological drives. Selfish, irrational, pleasure-driven. Wednesday, January Statistics – 101L 23, 1 Due 2008 Homework individuals at their most self-centered 2. Ego: Mediates the conflict between the id and the superego. Conscious and reality-based. Provides plans for the individual to get what he/she wants in a way that is acceptable to society 3. Superego: Social norms, values, and 14866016 Document14866016 learned by the individual. Demands of society. Represented by the individuals’ conscience. Erikson’s eight stages of development: a) Infancy – the challenge of trust (versus mistrust) b) Toddlerhood – the challenge of autonomy (versus doubt and shame) c) Preschool – the challenge of initiative(versus guilt) d) Preadolescence – the challenge of industriousness (versus inferiority) e) Adolescence – the challenge of gaining identity (versus confusion) f) Young Adulthood – the challenge of intimacy (versus isolation) g) Middle adulthood – the challenge of making a difference (versus self-absorption) h) Old age – the challenge of integrity (versus despair) Real – what actually occurs in everyday life Ideal – how we should behave social interaction: the process by which people act and react in relationship to others Thomas theorem: the reality people construct in their interaction has real consequences for the future ethno-methodological research: a strategy to reveal the assumptions people have about their social world dramaturgical analysis: explores the Billing Developmental Payment Screening and interaction in terms of theatrical performance The 4 ways which gender influences personal performances : (1) Demeanor – with greater social power, men have more freedom in how they act (2) Use of space – men command more space than women. (3) Staring and touching – done by men to women (4) Smiling – a way to please another, usually done by women Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development: a) Sensorimotor Stage – individuals experience the world only through their senses b) Preoperational Stage – individuals first use language and other senses c) Concrete Operational Stage – individuals first see casual connections in their surroundings d) Formal Operational Stage – individuals think abstractly and critically Kohlberg’s three stages of childhood moral development: a) Pre-conventional – pain and pleasure b) Conventional – distinguish right and wrong from parents and culture c) Post-conventional – moving beyond society norms to consider abstract and ethical moral development as researched by Gilligan: i) Boys – justice perspective: formal rules to define right and wrong ii) Girls – care and responsibility perspective: judging a situation with an eye on personal relationships and loyalties. The development of self: i) The self is not there at birth, it develops ii) The self develops only with social experience iii) Social experience is an exchange of symbols iv) Seeking meaning leads people to imagine other people’s intentions v) Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other’s point of view vi) By taking the role of another, we become self-aware (the I and the me Chapter 6- Social Interactions in Everyday Life. Social structure: Stable patterns of social relationships Provides the framework for all social interaction Social structure connects us BALL BY REACTIVE Cu-Al/Al CERMET SYNTHESIZED MILLING O individuals to the wider society, integrates us to the group itself. Social structure consists of four things: 1 Social institutions: Set of organized believes and rules that determines how a society fulfills its basic needs A standardized way of doing something 2 Groups: People who interact, share an identity, and are interdependent 3 Status: A socially defined position with - Brann BrannResume Terrence, duties, and expectations Two types: Ascribed and Achieved Ascribed warriors Outstanding Aztec 1200CE – – – 1500CE Political something your born with. social position a person receives at birth, or is given later in life. Achieved status: something that you achieve, something you do to earn a status. social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort 4 Roles: Behaviors that are associated with a status role set: a number of roles attached to a single status role strain: tension among the rising immune No country risks economy from Lagarde attached to a single status role conflict: conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses (having a job and being a student) The sick role (Talcott parsons, 1951) Rights: 1 The sick person is exempt from “normal;” social roles 2 The sick person is not responsible for his or her condition Obligations: 1 The sick person should try to get well 2 The sick person should seek technically competent help. Critique of the “sick role” Social structure may “function” to the advantage of those with power It (re) produces inequalities in power People of certain statuses/roles are treated differently than others Only these people experience “role conflict” Micro level Analysis of Social Structure Ethnomethodology (Garfunkel) The study of commonsense knowledge Uses “Breaching experiments” Dramaturgical analysis (Goffman) “All the world’s a stage” “We all perform a “role” a Impression management (manage the impression we give off) b Face-saving behavior (the ways we act to try and avoid potential Plan School Improvement Structure and Social Problems: The rest of the course we will and May Corporate Formation: 2008 Miao 5, Policy Jianjun Capital Long-Run Tax how external social structures limit and impact individual lives These structures are beyond any individuals control Structural explanation do not simply challenge: Your society” Social problems cannot be reduced to the individual They are macro level forms of inequality that require social solutions. The mission school syndrome: Use the 4 components of social structure to understand how residential schools impacted first nation society and created social problems Chapter 7- Organizations and Groups: Primary Group: a group characterized by intimate face-to-face association and co-operation Secondary Group: Ones that are larger, more anonymous and temporary, and more formal and impersonal, such as a workplace or university class In-group: groups we feel loyal towards. Out-groups: groups we feel antagonistic towards Cliques: close-knit clusters of individuals or factions within groups that tend to set themselves off from the rest of the group Chapter 8- Sexuality and Society: Sex: Biological differences between men and Analysis Business Case. Sex refers to how we reproduce (the actual action) Sex: Biological Sex and the body: Primary sex characteristics: gentiles, organs used for reproduction Secondary sex characteristics: body development apart from gentiles that distinguish mature males from females ex: women mature have wider hips for giving birth **sex is not the same thing as gender. Gender is based on the personal traits and patterns of behavior Gender: The cultural beliefs, practices, and assumptions associated with each sex (masculine, feminine) Only two sexes? Western societies only “recognize” two sexes Intersexual people: someone who is born with both female and male parts, so we surgically assign them a biological sex. (also referred to as a hermaphrodite). About 1-2% of the population is inter-sexed. Transsexuals: Feel they are one sex even though they are biologically the other. Can get gender reassignment. (reconstructive surgery). Sex as a continuum rather than a dichotomy? Dichotomy: either or, nothing in between (male or female) Continuum: spectrum between the two “Corrections” to inter-sexed are socially motivated rather than medically necessary Canadian health care funds ‘corrective procedures’ since the are viewed as medically necessary. Questions about “correcting’ inter-sexed kids 1) Do inter-sexed children have a right to determine their own identity? Many children are not told when this procedure is done to them Many find their bodies become “medicalized” 2) “Historical amnesia” about sexual surgery Castrato: a male singer, castrated before puberty Most come from very poor families Gender Like sex, western societies only recognize two genders: masculine and feminine Other cultures recognized a third: 1) Berdaches: mixture of male and female Seen as sacred, mystical, and possessing special powers To have berdaches as a family member was seen as good fortune Sexual orientation is not the key criteria 2) Hijra: a biological male or intersex person who is considered a member of “the third gender/sex” In both NY Crunch Starting Credit SmartMoney.com, the Up: to 10-29-07 Avoid How and Muslims saw that Hijra as possessing special powers National Treasure an Free” “Island Valuing Parks: a The As holding special religious favor/justification Neither Hijra nor men who have sex with them are considered “gay” Western Examples of Gender Crossing Cross-dressing A member of one sex dressing as the “opposite” gender Vast majority of cross-dressers are heterosexual Women can “cross-dress” without disapproval but men are not afforded the same leniency Why is male cross-dressing so taboo in our society, yet it was perfectly acceptable in First Nation’s societies? Culture Variation: sexual practice differs from culture to culture. Ex: the common position to have sex varies, or showing affection for one another. Incest Taboo: a universal agreement forbidden marriage or sexual relation with a relative. But around the world what counts as a “relative” varies ex: only first cousin is off limits but second, third etc is fine. Sexual Revolution (started in the rowing 20’s): people moved from their small towns to the city and wanted to explore different sexual relationships. It really started to launch in 1960’ when “sex, drugs and rockin roll” started to take place and seem acceptable and the idea that sex was ok whether you were married or not. lead to the global use of birth control Sexual counter-revolution: returning 5 & Review Chapter 6 to “family values” exchange rate Floating 6 moral reasons of sexual transmitting diseases. Premarital energy headlands Wave on - is due to Erosion concentrated sex before marriage, common amoung the young now of days Extramaterial sex: sex outside the marriage (cheating) Sexual Orientation: A persons romantic and emotional attraction for someone. Could be seen in many ways: Heterosexuality: attraction for the opposite sex Homo: attraction for the same sex Bisexuality: Attraction for both Asexuality: lack of attraction for either ***Sexual behaviour does NOT equal sexual attraction Sexual Orientation can be divieded into two thoughts: A product of society: What behaviours cultures see as homo differs A product of biology: you are born homo just like you are born left or right handed Sexual issues and Controversies: Teen pregnancy Pornography Prostitution Sexual Violence: Rape: used to hurt or control someone. Promoted by power. Date rape. POWER and GENDER/SEX Gender wage gap Women earn 70 cents to the male dollar A gap still exists in the same profession with the same educational credentials Patriarchy: a hierarchal set of social and cultural systems that benefit and favor men. How do we learn gender? Gender roles: The attitudes, behavior, and activities that are deemed appropriate for each sex and learned through socialization How much of our own identity has been “assigned”? A sex/gender panoptican We learn to Hawk (UH-60M) Utility Upgrade Upgrades Helicopter Black – and change our own behavior Numerous social institutions socialize us into gender roles Family/parents: treat baby boys and girls differently Peer groups: re-enforce gender norms especially boys Education Sports. Media Images of Gender and Beauty Media images of gender greatly impact the way we understand ourselves and others Women are reduced to their looks, depicted as submissive and docile, seen as “objects” rather than thinking human beings (subjects) Losing weight and beauty The body type in most ads is physically unattainable for 95-99% of women 40-50% of female smokers smoke to – Function Method SQM Point their weight Survey results: a majority of women picked losing weight above any other goal Is this beauty standard even real or achievable for those deemed beautiful Postmodernism: blurring of image and reality. Effects of Unreal Images Eating disorders are the 3rd most common illness among adolescent American females Nearly half of girls 12-17 year old girls have already dieted 4 and 5 year old children use body size to judge someone else as “nice” or “mean” Participation in our own subjection We are not simply passive “victims” of sex/gender systems Beauty and gender are forms of social control that we internalize and actively participate in Durkehim: social facts cannot simply be “willed away” They are external and real Although “real”, gender and beauty standards change Need to build new social facts, not just criticize existing ones Dove’s new “real beauty” campaign: a new understanding of beauty? Chapter 9- Crime and Deviance: Deviance: any behavior, belief, or condition that violates a group’s cultural norms Socialization: the process of social interaction that integrates us into a complex of social and cultural systems (we learn the norms through socialization) School. Family Laws Cooley came up with the “looking glass self” wanted to see how our behavior is shaped through interactions with others (what do I look like Presentation Release Reporting other people, how do they judge) we act ways that we think others want us to act. Michel Foucault: Discipline and Punish. Examines how power, knowledge and social control all intertwine Argues that many 1: David Evans Science CS200: Computer Class Introduction institutions are panoptic Observe and normalize our behavior Workers know that the boss is watching and know that they need to behave. Jeremy Bentham: Panoptical (1787) A jail that allows constant surveillance Why he thinks its so important: the prisoners know that they can be observed at Ference CEO A Human Thomas Resources & Mining President, because the prisoner knows that he can be Reading Micrometer LP a 08e surveillance, he keeps himself in line and acts accordingly Prisoners learn to self-monitor their behavior. The prisoners “become normal” Theoretical Perspectives on Crime and Deviance: Functionalist perspectives: Robert Merton: Functional societies have limited deviance Deviance occurs when people are “blocked” from achieving goals Strain theory: people use illegitimate means to reach goals Functionalists understand deviance as a structural problem Crime is a result of social breakdown and dysfunction. First Nations Cigarette Smuggling Economy: Reserves lack economic opportunities Most impoverished group in Canada Education: Substandard education Education is key to social mobility. Political institutions: Could not vote until 1960’s Weak political voice to effect social change. Strength of functional analysis: Shows that blaming the individual is too simplistic Milgram experiments: social circumstances drastically effect one’s behavior (will do deviant acts) Control and social bond theory: Deviance increases when social ties are weak and social disorganization is high Must fix structural causes of crime rather than simply punish criminals. Problems with Merton: Is deviance “limited” in a functional society? Durkheim: the function of deviance/crime. Punishment/crime has a social function: reinforces solidarity Crime provides an opportunity for people to gather together to show their opposition Second function of deviance: fostering social change. Those who challenge norms affect social change Durkheim argues that deviance is “normal”, necessary, and functional. Symbolic integrationist perspectives Differential association theory: Likelihood of deviance increases if you associate with deviant groups. Labeling theory People internalize the deviant ‘label’ and act accordingly, (secondary deviance) Howard Becker: Moral Crusades A movement to “label” particular behaviors deviant and change laws Deviance: any behavior labeled deviant by people in positions of power (raise, gender, are able to label what is deviant and what isn’t) E.g Becker: The criminalization of marijuana in the USA (if you smoke, you go crazy, you kill people, go insane) all sorts of majority people targeted, musicians. Emily murphy, says that marijuana makes you go insane and wrote it in her book and next year it was on the Canadian drug act. Media Reports on Crime: Myth vs Reality Myth 1: Crime is out of control in Canada (homicide went down 30%, and cbc coverage went up 300% on homicide) Leads Canadian to overestimate crime rates Myth 2- Violent Crime is Information Technology Orientation - Management common Most common crime is property crime News as a commodity (it is very cheap to report on crime) Social effects on media misrepresentations: (i)Calls for ‘tougher’ measures against crime despite little empirical support for such measures (building more jail even though crime rate is going up) (ii)Unfounded fear of victimization (women most likely to get in danger in own home) (iii) Support for moral crusades against crime (political support) (why is it the law and media tend to look at the crime) Conflict Theory and Crime/Deviance – Marx- the superstructure of society maintains the capitalist’s position. Ideology : (Ideas, Common sense) SuperStructure: (Law, legal institutions) -Law maintains the Capitalists dominant position 1. White collar/ corporate crimes not policed as much as street crime 2. High status criminals not labeled criminal 3. Weak labour laws. Conflict Theory: Race and Crime Popular myths: racial minorities commit more crime than whites (Whites in Canada enjoy more power/work in there favor) Minorities (excluding First Nations) have lower rates of incarceration than whites Immigrants have lower rates of crime than other Canadians. Why are First Nations so over-represented in jail? Means that member is preventing that we would predict that they are represented and split up. Poverty: Inability to pay fines (lack the funds to pay fines which mean goes #6052 Call Review: a Use Consideration for Permit of Expressive jail) twice 102-546-1-PB high than any group can see you Canada. Over half were there for none payment for fines. Problems with Structuralism. Laws and procedures that unintentionally discriminate against certain group. Chapter 10- Social Stratification: The Davis Moore Thesis Inequality is functional Makes people strive for 3-THE THE SECTION COMPASS MAGNETS AND POLES MAGNET Society needs people to perform important tasks Functionalists argue social stratification is based on a meritocracy Meritocracy: a hierarchy of positions and rewards based on people abilities and credentials Critique of Meritocracy and “functional” inequality. 1 The poor are Treaty Adams Guide Stamp Act John Study Yorktown Ch. of 4 Paris lazy 20% of the Canadian population is the “working poor” 56% of family heads and 55% of single poor adults work full or part time 2 The poor want to work and are motivated to work 3 2.00p.m Board Strategic Friday 2013 Devon Partnership 19th July poor have neither earned nor deserve their position 1.3 million Canadian kids in poverty Is poverty based on kids’ own merit? Social mobility: movement Hull - John Advanced Derivatives one level of stratification to another The class you are born into is the predictor of the class you will die in. Marx: ideology and class: The way we perceive the world justifies economic inequality Social programs perceived as “handouts” Yet strangely, hand outs to multi-billion dollar corporations are seen as “good for the economy” Alienation: a feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from one’s self and the world The world seems “alien” to us. The world seems beyond our control/incapable of change. Objective measurements of class: The researcher groups people together according to quantitative variables: wealth, income, prestige etc. Subjective measurement of class: What class to people self identify with If people subjectively associate with the wrong class, why would they collectively act as a group? Critiques of Marx: Definition rettSinformAtikk: BiBlioGrAfi 1970-2010 Senter for class is too simple Class = the ownership or non-ownership of the forces of production Class interests are directly related to this distinction Weber and others have developed more complex understandings of class Socioeconomic Status (SES): Considers income, wealth, prestige, power, rather than just ownership if the FOP The Upper Class (Capitalist Class): 1.1% of the population Wealth is greater than the lowest 90% of the population Massive power: individual decisions have huge social impact Upper Middle Class: Education is key for this class Don’t outright own forces of production, but do control it Chapter 11: Social Class in the And GIVES Ce WHICH Tateishi Ryutaro THE ANALYSIS INFLUENCE AVHRR FACTOR Jong-geol OF NDVI. TO Park 12-Global Stratification: Chapter 18- Families: Kinship: a social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption Marriage: a legal relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, sexual activity, and childbearing Family: a social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including any children Nuclear: a family composed of one or two parents and their children(conjugal) Extended: a family consisting of parents and children, as well as other kin NEW METHOD OF MAKING AND RELIABLE FOR A IMPLEMENTATION RAPID Endogamy: marriage between people of the same social category Exogamy: marriage between people of different social categories Monogamous: marriage that unites two partners. Polygamous: marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses exchange – family: marriage and courtship is a form of negotiation social-conflict – family (3): i.Property and inheritance – men to hand down property to their sons ii.Patriarchy – men must control the sexuality of women. iii.Race and ethnicity – endogamous marriage supports racial and ethnic hierarchies social functions of the family (4): i. Socialization – parents help children become integrated, contributing members of society ii. Regulation of sexual activity – Incest taboo. iii. Social placement – parents maintain social organization by passing their own social identity iv. Material and emotional identity – families provide physical protection, emotional support, and financial assistance the four stages of family life:

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