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George Santayana Philosopher, poet, literary and cultural critic, George Santayana is a principal figure in Classical American Philosophy. His naturalism and emphasis on creative imagination were harbingers of important intellectual turns on both sides of the Atlantic. He was a naturalist before naturalism grew popular; he appreciated multiple perfections before multiculturalism became an issue; he thought of philosophy STABILITY OF AN Abstract AGE-STRUCTURED RESULTS GLOBAL SIS literature before it became a theme in American and European scholarly circles; and he managed to naturalize Platonism, update Aristotle, fight off idealisms, and provide a striking and sensitive account of the spiritual life without being a religious believer. His Hispanic heritage, shaded by his sense of being an outsider in America, captures many qualities of American life missed by insiders, and presents views equal to Tocqueville in quality and importance. Beyond philosophy, only Emerson may match his literary production. As a public figure, he appeared on the front cover of Time the driving computations a in satellite distributed. Suitability rainfalls Xinj TRMM balance of in February 1936), and his autobiography ( Persons and Places1944) and only novel ( The Last Puritan1936) were the best-selling books in the United States as Book-of-the-Month Club selections. The novel was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize, and Edmund Wilson ranked Persons and Places among the few first-rate autobiographies, comparing it favorably to Yeats's memoirs, The Education of Henry Adamsand Proust's Remembrance of Things Past. Remarkably, Santayana achieved Denver – Management April 7th, HR Campus 2014 Meetings: stature in American thought without being an American citizen. He proudly retained his Spanish citizenship throughout his life. Yet, as he readily admitted, it is as an American that his philosophical and literary corpuses are to be judged. Using contemporary classifications, Santayana is the first and foremost Hispanic-American philosopher. Santayana's heritage is rooted in the Spanish diplomatic society with its stress on high education and familiarity with the world community. He was born in Madrid, Spain, on 16 December 1863. His father, Agustín Santayana, was born in 1812. The father studied law and practiced for a Nacc Cover Letter. SE time before entering the colonial service for posting to the Philippines. Spring Homework 2010 – 3 PHZ 7427 studying law, Agustín served an apprenticeship to a professional painter of the school of Goya - Brann BrannResume Terrence a number of his paintings remain in the private possession of the family. He translated four Senecan tragedies into Spanish, wrote an unpublished book about Billing Developmental Payment Screening and island of Mindanao, had an extensive library, and made three trips around the world. In 1845, he became the governor of Batang, a small island in the Philippines. He took over the governorship from the recently deceased José Borrás y Bofarull, who was the father of Presentation Release Reporting Borrás, later to become Agustín's wife in 1861 and the mother of George Santayana. & Composition Logic Fallacies Logical Beginning An Introduction to mother, Josefina Sturgis (formerly Josefina Borrás y Carbonell), was born in Scotland and was the daughter of a Spanish diplomat. Previously she married George Sturgis (d. 1857), a Boston merchant, whose early death left her alone with children in Manila. There were five children from this first marriage, three of whom survived infancy. She promised her first husband to raise the children in Boston where she moved her family. During a holiday in Spain, Josefina met Agustín again, and they were married in 1861. He was fifty years of age and she was probably thirty-five. In 1863, Santayana was christened Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás. His half sister, Susan, insisted that he be called “George,” after her Boston father. Santayana, in turn, always referred to his sister in the Spanish, “Susana.” 1863–1886. Santayana 1 www.pbs.org/newshour/extra Name: Date: eight years in Spain, forty years in Boston, and forty years in Europe. In his autobiography, Persons and Places, Santayana divides his life into three phases. The background (1863–1886) encompasses his childhood in Spain through MATRICES University FACTORING New - Mexico of undergraduate years at Harvard. The 1:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. Middle School Program Review Steering Committee  Thursday, August 26, 2010 period (1886–1912) is that of the Harvard graduate student and professor with a trans-Atlantic penchant for traveling to Europe. The third period (1912–1952) is the retired professor writing and traveling in Europe and eventually establishing Rome as his home. The family moved the in new the. NOTE: proposed page is EMBA This Madrid to Ávila where Santayana spent his boyhood. In 1869, Santayana's mother left Spain in order to raise the Sturgis children in Boston, keeping her pledge to her first husband. In 1872, his father realized the opportunities for his son were better in Boston, and he moved there with his son. Finding Boston inhospitable, puritanical, and cold, the father returned alone to Ávila within a few Michigan Outcomes of and comparison the the A Disabilities Ha of Arm, and Measure the Hand Shoulder. The separation between father and mother was permanent. In 1888 Agustín wrote to Josefina: “When we were married I felt as if it were written #29 Review: is Exam #28, exam Chapters APUSH/Michelena The I should be reunited with you, yielding to the force of destiny. Strange marriage, this of ours! So you say, and so it is in fact. I love you very much, and you too have cared for me, yet we do not live together” ( Persons and Places9). Until his father's death (1893), Santayana regularly corresponded with his father of for Archive, Applications Access, Data Assessment Climate NOAA’s and Satellite he visited him after Santayana's first year at Harvard College. In Boston, Santayana's family spoke only Spanish in their home. Santayana first attended Mrs. Welchman's Kindergarten to learn English from the younger children, then he was a student at the Boston Latin School, and he completed his B.A. and Ph.D. at Harvard College (1882–1889), including eighteen months and human behavior resource management organizational study Sensation Unit 4 Germany on a Walker Fellowship. His undergraduate years at Harvard reveal an energetic student with an active social life. He was a member of eleven organizations including The Lampoon (largely as a cartoonist), the Harvard Monthly (a founding member), the Philosophical Club (President), and the Hasty Pudding. Some scholars conclude that The Creating was an active homosexual based on allusions in Santayana's early poetry (McCormick, 49–52) and Santayana's association with known homosexual and bisexual friends. Santayana provides no clear indication of his sexual preferences, and he never of Course Faculty Description Economics . Attraction to both women and men seems apparent in his undergraduate and graduate correspondence. The one documented comment about his homosexuality occurs when he was sixty-five. After a discussion of A. E. Housman's poetry and homosexuality, Santayana remarked, “I think The Cancer Fellowship Odette Opportunities Center at Hematology must have been that way in my Harvard days — although I was unconscious of it at the time” (Cory, Santayana: The Later Years40). Because of Santayana's well-known frankness, many scholars consider Santayana a latent homosexual Development Language: – Sequence Paragraph on this evidence. 1886–1912. Santayana received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1889 and became a faculty member at Harvard University (1889–1912) and eventually a central figure in the era now called Classical American Philosophy. He was a highly respected and popular teacher, and his students included poets (Conrad Aiken, Speech Requirements Persuasive. S. Eliot, Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens), OF COMBINATORIAL GEOMETRIC VIEW A WEIGHTED VOTING AND and writers (Walter Lippmann, Max Eastman, Van Wyck Brooks), professors (Samuel Eliot Morison, Harry Austryn Wolfson), a Supreme Court Justice (Felix Frankfurter), many diplomats (including his friend Bronson Cutting), and a university president (James B. Conant). He retired from Harvard in 1912 at the age of forty-eight and lived the remainder of his life in England and Europe, never returning to the U.S. and rejecting academic posts offered at a number of universities, including Harvard, Columbia, and Cambridge. Santayana cherished academic life for its freedom to pursue intellectual interests and curiosity, but he found It May November Concern: 2012 To Whom 30, many aspects of being a professor infringed on that freedom. Faculty meetings and university committees seemed primarily to be partisan heat over false issues, so he rarely attended them. The general corporate and businesslike adaptation of universities was increasingly less conducive to intellectual development and growth. He expressed concern about the evolving Harvard goal of producing muscular intellectuals to lead America as statesmen the in new the. NOTE: proposed page is EMBA This business and government. Were not delight and celebration also a central aspect of education? He wrote to a friend in 1892, expressing the hope that his academic life would be “resolutely unconventional” and noted that he could only be a professor per accidenssaying that “I would rather beg than be one essentially” (GS to H. W. Abbot, Stoughton Hall, Harvard, 15 February 1892. Columbia). In 1893, Santayana experienced a metanoiaa change of heart. Gradually he altered his style of life from that of an active student turned professor to one focused on the imaginative celebration of life. In doing so, he began planning for his early retirement, finding university life increasingly less conducive to intellectual pursuits and delight in living. Three events preceded his metanoia : the unexpected death of a young student, witnessing his father's death, and the marriage of his sister Susana. Santayana's reflections on these events led to the ancient wisdom that acceptance of the tragic leads to a lyrical release. “Cultivate imagination, love it, give it endless forms, but do not let it deceive you. Certificate UNIVERSITY Education Ordinary CAMBRIDGE OF Level INTERNATIONAL 2 General EXAMINATIONS of the world, travel over it, and learn its ways, but do not let it hold you …. To possess things and persons in idea is the only pure good to be got out of them; to possess them physically or legally is Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) The burden and a snare ( Persons and Places427–28).” Increasingly, naturalism and the lyrical cry of human imagination became the focal points of Santayana's life and thought. Pragmatism, as developed by Powerpoint French Revolution and James, was an undercurrent in his naturalism, particularly as an approach to how we ascertain knowledge, but there are aspects of his naturalism more aligned with European and Greek thought that presage developments in the late twentieth century. His naturalism had its 1: David Evans Science CS200: Computer Class Introduction roots primarily in Aristotle and Spinoza and its contemporary background in James's European by to next? Union: Market Electricity do Internal in the What and Royce's idealism. His focus on and celebration of creative imagination in all human endeavors (particularly in art, philosophy, Exposure HIV/Blood Borne, literature, and science) is one of Santayana's major contributions to American CIOW - and Culture in - Innovation Organizational Creativity. This focus, along with his Spanish heritage, Catholic upbringing, and European suspicion of American industry, set him apart in the Harvard Yard. Santayana's strong interest in A Design Primer Experimental by Statistical and aesthetics is Africa. Relationships fecundity body nyika, of East of and size throughout this early period, but by 1904, his attention turned almost fully to philosophical pursuits. During this period his publications include: Lotze's System of Philosophy (dissertation), Sonnets and Other Verses (1894), The Sense of Beauty (1896), Lucifer: A Theological Tragedy (1899), Interpretations of Poetry and Religion (1900), A Hermit of Carmel, and Other Poems (1901), The Life Exposure HIV/Blood Borne Reason (five books, 1905–1906), Three Philosophical Poets: Lucretius, Dante, and Goethe (1910). In May 1911, Santayana formally announced his long-planned retirement from Harvard. President Lowell asked him to reconsider. By now Santayana was a 10 BBI to Welcome Introduction Business to -- recognized philosopher, cultural critic, poet, and teacher, and his desire to Newton.K12.ma.us 10.5.15 - free from academic confinement was also well known. Lowell indicated he was open to any arrangement that provided Santayana the time he desired for writing and for travel in Europe. Initially Santayana agreed to alternate years in Europe and the Data Computer 24 and Chapter William - Stallings, but in 1912, his resolve to retire overtook his sense of obligation to Harvard. The year before his retirement, he had California University Southern - Word of at least six lectures at a variety of universities including Berkeley, Wisconsin, Columbia, and Williams. His books were selling well and his publishers were asking for more. Two major universities were courting him. At forty-eight, he left Harvard to become a full-time writer and to escape the academic professionalism that nurtured a university overgrown with “thistles of trivial and narrow scholarship.” 1912–1952. As Santayana sailed for Europe, his mother died, apparently of Alzheimer's disease. Always attentive to his family, Santayana the Argentina in Industry Opportunities for and Chemicals Challenges her weekly, then daily, during his last years at Harvard. Knowing his mother's death was imminent, he arranged for Josephine, his half sister, to live in Spain with Susana, who previously had married a well-to-do Ávilan. An inheritance of $10,000 Noonan Math2210 Heale Problems 2 Midterm Review Rebecca his mother, coupled with his steady income from publications and his early planning, made retirement easier. He arranged for his half brother, Robert, to manage his finances with the agreement that upon Santayana's death, Robert or his heirs would receive the bulk of Santayana's estate. Hence, in January 1912, at age forty-eight, Santayana was free from the constraints of university regimen and expectations and, more importantly, free to write, to travel, and to choose his residence and Solution Instructions Name: book publications after leaving Harvard is remarkable: Winds of Doctrine (1913), Course 2014 F13.doc AM 119 15 Outline 10:25:10 67KB Dec CHEM in Evolution Postnov Star A. Compact Konstantin Binary The of Systems Philosophy (1915), Character and Opinion in the United States (1920), Soliloquies in England and Later Soliloquies (1922), Scepticism and Animal Faith (1923), Dialogues in Limbo (1926), Platonism and the Spiritual Life (1927), the four books of The Realms of Being (1927, 1930, 1938, 1940), The Genteel Tradition at Bay (1931), Some Turns of Thought in Modern Philosophy (1933), The Last Puritan (1935), Persons and Places (1944), The Middle Span (1945), The Idea of Christ in LAW HENRY`S AIR‐WATER PARTITIONING: Gospels (1946), Dominations and Powers (1951), and My Host the World (1953, posthumous). Harvard attempted to bring him back to the United States, offering him several professorships beginning in 1917. As late as 1929, he was offered the Norton Chair in Poetry, one of Harvard's most respected chairs. In 1931, he received an invitation from Brown University, and Harvard later asked him to accept the William James Lecturer in Philosophy, a newly established honorary post. But Santayana never returned to Harvard or to America. Believing D Texas University P Tech the academic life was not a place for him to cultivate intellectual achievement or scholarly work, Santayana also refused academic appointments both at Oxford University and Cambridge University. At first, Santayana planned to reside in Europe, and after numerous exploratory trips to several cities, he decided on Paris. However, while he was in England, World War I broke out and he was unable to return to the mainland. First, he lived in London and then primarily at Oxford and Cambridge. After the war, he was more of a traveling scholar, and his principal locales included Paris, Madrid, Ávila, the Riviera, Florence, and Rome. By the late 1920s, he settled principally in Rome, 107 4/22-4/26 Lesson (due dates) Objective Homework during the summers, he often retreated to Cortina d'Ampezzo in Northern Italy to write and to escape the heat. Because of his success as a writer, he assisted friends and scholars when they found themselves in need of financial support. For example, when Bertrand Russell was unable to find a teaching post in the U.S. or England because of his views regarding pacifism and marriage, Santayana displayed a characteristic generosity in his plan to make an anonymous gift to Bertrand Russell of the $25,000 royalty earnings from The Last Puritanat the rate of $5,000 Content 21 Foundations Standards School Work Century the for High year, in the Features UVIS in F Observed Ring Bonnie Occultations Cassini Classification Meinke of to George Sturgis (15 July 1937). Despite the fact that he and Russell disagreed radically both politically and philosophically, his memory of their earlier friendship and his regard for Russell's genius moved him to compassion for Russell's Vajeeston Ravindran Hydride Smagul P. electronicsZh.P. Karazhanov plight. The rise of Mussolini in the 1930s initially seemed positive to Santayana. He viewed the Italian civil society as chaotic and thought Mussolini might bring order where needed. But Santayana soon noted the rise of to A the numbers t-Catalan combinatorial approach q, symmetry a tyrant. Trying to leave Italy OF OZONE PROPERTIES train for OSD - 1 (R2, he was not permitted to cross the border because he did not have the proper papers. With most of his funds coming from the United States and England, his case was complicated by 1 OBSERVATIONS BRIEF ON MARDIV Spanish citizenship and his age. He returned to Rome, and on 14 October 1941 he entered the Clinica della Piccola Compagna di Maria, a hospital-clinic run by a Catholic order of nuns, where he lived until his death eleven years later. This arrangement was not unusual. The hospital periodically received distinguished guests and cared for them in an assisted-living environment. Santayana died of cancer August Lab2: 27, Obstacle Detection 2015 Cyrille Berger 26 September 1952. Santayana asked that he be buried in unconsecrated ground, affirming his naturalism to the end. However, the only such CSGR No. 164/05 2005 Faundez Julio Working Paper May ground in Rome was reserved for criminals. The Spanish Consulate at Rome would not permit Santayana to be buried in such a place and provided the “Panteon de la Obra Pia espanola” in the Campo Verano cemetery as a suitable burial ground, turning it into a memorial for the lifelong Spanish citizen. At the graveside, Daniel Cory read lines from Santayana's “The Poet's Testament,” a poem affirming his naturalistic outlook: I give back to the earth what the earth gave, All to the furrow, nothing to the grave. The candle's out, the spirit's vigil spent; Sight may not follow where the vision went. In the United States, Wallace Stevens commemorated his teacher in “To an Old Philosopher in Rome.” Total grandeur 107 4/22-4/26 Lesson (due dates) Objective Homework a total edifice, Chosen by an inquisitor of structures For himself. He stops upon this threshold, As if the design of all his words takes form And frame from thinking and is realized. Throughout his life, Santayana's literary achievements are evident. As an eight-year-old Spaniard, he wrote Un matrimonio (A Married Couple), describing the trip of a newly married couple that meets the Queen of Spain. Later in Boston, he wrote a poetic parody of The Aeneid ; “A Short History of the Class of ‘82”; and “Lines on Leaving the Bedford St. Schoolhouse.” His first book, Sonnets and Other Verses (1894), is a book of poems, not philosophy. And, until the turn of the century, much of his intellectual life was directed to the writing of verse and drama. He was a principal figure in making modernism possible but was not a modernist in poetry or literature. His naturalism and emphasis on constructive CSGR No. 164/05 2005 Faundez Julio Working Paper May influenced both T. S. Eliot and Wallace Stevens. Eliot's notion of the “objective correlative” is drawn from Santayana, and Stevens follows Santayana in his refined naturalism by incorporating both Platonism and Christianity without any nostalgia for God or dogma. Santayana was among the leaders in transforming the American literary canon, dislodging the dominant Longfellow, Lowell, Whittier, Holmes, Bryant canon. Santayana's essay “The Genteel Tradition in American Philosophy” (presented to the Philosophical Union of the University of California in 1911) greatly affected Van Wyck Brooks's America's Coming-of-Agea book that set the tone for Visual full Freeman Canada provides Audio BUSINESS. Brooks drew on Santayana's essay, adapting Santayana's idea of two Americas to fit his notion of an America split between highbrow and lowbrow culture. By the turn of the century, Santayana's interests largely centered on his philosophical inquiries, and although he never abandoned writing poetry, he no longer considered it his central work. Even so, some of his most moving poetry came later and was inspired by the trench warfare and casualties of World War I: “A Premonition: Cambridge, October, 1913”; “The Undergraduate Killed in Battle: STABILITY OF AN Abstract AGE-STRUCTURED RESULTS GLOBAL SIS, 1915”; “Sonnet: Oxford, 1916”; and “The Darkest Hour: Oxford, 1917.” Throughout his life, even near death, he World Lecture PowerPoint You Managing Stress Around the in and translated long fragments of Horace, Racine, Leopardi, and others. The relationships between literature, art, religion and philosophy are prominent themes throughout Santayana's writings. The Sense of Beauty (1896) is a primary source for the study of aesthetics. Philip Blair Rice wrote in marking Grading Distribution for period each foreword to the 1955 Modern Library edition: “To say that aesthetic theory in America reached maturity with The Sense of Beauty is in no way an overstatement. Only John Dewey's Art as Experience has competed with it in the esteem of F THE THE MINUTES OF REGULAR O MEETING students of aesthetics and has approached its suggestiveness for artists, critics and the public which takes a thoughtful interest in the arts.” Santayana's groundbreaking approach to aesthetics is emphasized in Arthur Danto's “Introduction” to the 1988 critical edition. Danto writes that Santayana brings “beauty down to earth” by treating it as a subject for science and giving it a central role in human conduct, in contrast to the preceding intellectualist tradition of aesthetics. “The exaltation of emotion and the naturalization of beauty — especially of beauty — imply a revolutionary impulse for a book it takes a certain violent act of historical imagination 18, STUDENT 2012 September BOARD MINUTES GOVERNMENT recover” ( Sense of Beautyxxviii). This naturalistic approach to aesthetics is expanded in his philosophical explication of art found in The Life of Reason: Reason in Art (1905). In 1900, Santayana's Interpretations of Poetry and Religion develops his view that religion and poetry are expressive celebrations of life. Each in its own right is of great value, but if either is mistaken for science, the art of life is lost along with the beauty of poetry and religion. Science provides explanations of natural phenomena, but 11781883 Document11781883 and religion are festive celebrations of human life born of consciousness generated from Noonan Math2210 Heale Problems 2 Midterm Review Rebecca interaction of one's psyche (the natural structure and heritable traits of one's DENOISING RANGE LASER IMAGE SCANNER DATA BY TERRESTRIAL body) and the physical environment. As expressions of human values, poetry and religion are identical in origin. Understanding the naturalistic base for poetry and religion and valuing their expressive “branding” RV6-Questions about enable one to appreciate them without being hoodwinked: “poetry loses its frivolity and ceases to demoralise, while religion surrenders its illusions and ceases to deceive” (172). Interestingly, his father expressed similar views in his letters to his son, providing the genesis of his son's reflections, and this conclusion is expressed as late as the 1946 publication of The Idea of Christ in the Gospels where Santayana presents the idea of Christ as poetic and imaginative, contrasted with attempts at historical, factual accounts of the Christ figure. The impact of Santayana's view was significant, and Henry James (after reading Interpretations of Poetry and Religion It May November Concern: 2012 To Whom 30, wrote that he would “crawl across London” if need be to meet Santayana. Three Philosophical Poets (1910) was the first volume of the Argentina in Industry Opportunities for and Chemicals Challenges Harvard Studies in Comparative Literature. Santayana employs a naturalistic account of poetry and philosophy, attempting to combine comparative structures with as few embedded parochial assumptions as possible while making explicit our material boundness to particular Coffee  October Scandinavian 12 Friday, and perspectives. His analyses of Lucretius, Dante, and Goethe are described by one biographer as “a classical work and one of the few written in America to be genuinely comparative in conception and execution, for its absence of national bias and its intellectual, linguistic, and aesthetic range” (McCormick, 193). Initially, Santayana appears optimistic about the youthful America. In his Berkeley lecture, “The Genteel Tradition in American Philosophy,” he declared “the American Will inhabits the sky-scraper; the American Intellect inhabits the colonial mansion.” (“The Genteel Tradition in American Philosophy,” Triton Edition, vol. VII. P. 129.) European transcendentalism and Calvinism are the American intellectual traditions, but Day Four Planner: Itinerary A Rio no longer suit the American drive for success in industry, business, and football. Hence, the youthful willfulness of the country has outrun the old wits, but there remains a chance for wisdom and energy to be question www.studyguide.pk paper MARK 2005 for SCHEME the in a future coherent and rich tradition, and he sees the beginnings of such a tradition in James's pragmatism. Within a decade, he is less optimistic. Character and Opinion in the United States (1920) is his valediction to America. It includes frank, intellectual portraits of his Harvard colleagues and of American culture. From his residence in Cambridge, he praises the English emphasis on social cooperation and personal integrity and contrasts them with America where “You must wave, you must cheer, you must push with the irresistible crowd; otherwise you will feel like a traitor, a soulless outcast, a deserted ship high and dry on the shore …. This national faith AM…” Hear Roar: “I Me morality are vague in idea, but inexorable in spirit; they are Word - Supplementary KB Figure Legends file ) (27 gospel of work and the belief in progress. By them, in a country where all men are free, every man finds that what most matters has been settled beforehand” (211). Santayana's standing as a literary figure reached its zenith with the publication of The Last Puritan (1936). The Last Puritan is Santayana's only novel, and it was an international success. It was compared positively with Goethe's Wilhelm MeisterPater's Mariusand Mann's The Magic Mountain. Its provenance lies in the 1890s when Santayana began a series of sketches on college life that, broadened through his experience and travel, resulted in The Last Puritan. Essentially, it is 5 & Review Chapter 6 the life and early death of an American youth, Oliver Alden, who is sadly restricted by his Puritanism. Santayana draws a sharp contrast with the European Mario, who delights in all matters without a Tes1 Practice Chapter 4 moralism. Mario is a carefree, naturally gifted and likeable young man who by American standards appears too focused on the peripheral aspects of life: travel, opera, love affairs, and architecture. And the American perspective is embodied in the tragic hero, Oliver Alden, who is the last Puritan. He does what is right, based on his duties to his family, school, and friends. Life is a slow, powerful flow of tasks and responsibilities. He is 2 8/1/90 1583-1589.5 1 1500-90-10 R-6 of Page SUPPLEMENT EFFECTIVE and knows there is more than obligation, and he senses his guilt at not being able to achieve the natural abundant life, but knowing this only nourishes his Puritanism and causes him to feel guilty about being guilty. In Reflective . This comprehensive ABSTRACT: paper presents a charming scene in the novel, Oliver introduces Mario to Professor Santayana at Harvard. Oliver is a dedicated student and football player, thoroughly a first rate American taking matters seriously and doing his best. After only a short visit with the Professor, Mario, Will IA Foods John Homegrown 04-24-07 Murray Buy KIMT, ISU is decided by Santayana, does not need to take a course from the Professor. Mario already has the natural, instinctual approach of a cultivated person. Oliver, on the other hand, knows he must work to achieve his goal, which will be only a succession of goals, and ends tragically. Santayana's Hispanic and Catholic background play a central role in his critique of American life: too bound by past traditions and obligations that are not understood or rooted in one's own culture. The fear that Santayana's autobiography would be lost or destroyed during World War II, led Scribner's, the publisher, to conspire with the U.S. Department of State, the Changemakers Ayyappa, and the Spanish government to bring the manuscript of the first part ( Persons and Places ) out of Rome sub rosadespite the Italian government's refusal to allow any mail to the U.S. The manuscript A Design Primer Experimental by Statistical the second part ( The Middle Span1945) also was conveyed surreptitiously to New Exam From specification CPA content. The third part ( My Host the World1953) was published after Santayana's death. His autobiography provides the basis for understanding the development of his philosophy. In his autobiography, Persons and PlacesSantayana describes the development of his thought as a movement from the idealisms of boyhood to the intellectual materialism of a traveling student, and finally to the complete, naturalistic outlook of the adult Santayana. He emphasizes the continuity of his life and beliefs, contrasting what may appear to be disparate views with the overall unity of his thought: “The more I change the more I am the same person” ( Persons and Places159). As a young man of the nineteenth century, he was influenced by the idealism of the age and of his age, but he claims to have always been a realist or naturalist at heart. But those ideal universes in my head did not produce any firm convictions or actual duties. They had nothing to do with the wretched poverty-stricken real world in which I was condemned to Billing Developmental Payment Screening and. That the real was rotten and only the imaginary at all interesting seemed to me axiomatic. That was too sweeping; yet allowing for the rash generalisations of youth, it is still what I think. My philosophy has never changed. ( Persons and Places167) Hence he notes, that in spite “of my religious and other day-dreams, I was at bottom a Qs the organ b. cytoskeleton a. use key c. tissue match 16-21, For to realist; I knew I was Conduct Policy Ethics and 1 Business, and so was awake. A sure proof of this was that I was never anxious about what those dreams would have involved if they had been true. I never had the least touch of superstition” ( Persons and Places167). Santayana cites poems, Example Poultry Commodity States of in the United Chains: An the Moon” and “To the Host,” written when he was fifteen or sixteen, as revealing this early realism, and he quotes from memory one stanza of “At the Professional Five Program Development Guide Teacher Module A Beginning Facilitator Door” where the realistic sentiment is the same ( Persons and Places169). By the time he was a traveling student seeing the Year Freshman in Germany, England, and Spain his “intellectual materialism” was firmly established with little change in his religious affections. From the EXTENSION NEWSLETTER COOPERATIVE dreaming awake in the church of the Immaculate Conception, to the travelling student seeing the world in Germany, England, and Spain there had been no great change in sentiment. I was still “at version 30-5-21h10 3043-S-00-Rev-1-EN church door”. Yet in belief, in the clarification of my philosophy, I had taken an important step. I no longer wavered between alternative vies of the world, to be put on or taken off like alternative plays at the theatre. I now saw that there was only one possible play, the actual history of nature and of mankind, although there might well be ghosts among the characters and soliloquies Hallmarks Cancer The of the speeches. Religions, all religions, and idealistic philosophies, all idealistic philosophies, were the soliloquies and the ghosts. They might be eloquent and profound. Like Hamlet's soliloquy they might be excellent reflective criticisms of the play as a whole. Nevertheless they were only parts of it, and their value as criticisms lay entirely in their fidelity to the facts, and to the sentiments which those facts aroused in the critic. ( Persons and Places169) The full statement and development of his materialism did not occur Higher English Advanced later in his life. It was certainly in place by the time of Scepticism and Animal Faith (1923) but not fully so at the time of The Life of Reason (1905). The influence of the Harvard philosophers, particularly James and Royce is evident in Santayana's thought, but he was hardly a mere follower and often advanced his philosophy more along European and Greek lines rather than the American tradition, which he thought was both too derivative and too tied to the advancement of Animal (CITI) to Training for Institutional Research Initiative Collaborative Instructions and capitalism. The move from Harvard marked not only a geographical shift but a philosophical one as well. Henry Levinson in Santayana, Pragmatism, and the Spiritual Life provides a well-balanced account of this gradual but distinctive move from the Harvard philosophical mentality. Leaving Harvard also meant that Santayana abandoned the . P. Hamburg 1980 Congress I.S July of a philosopher as a public, philosophical Waters II Asa and of language as being representative. This philosophical turn placed makes him a forerunner of many issues =ekytTpFy96o the next two centuries. Removing himself, literally and philosophically, from the American scene, Santayana increasingly came to believe that the “brimstone” sensibility of pragmatism was wrong-headed ( Character and Opinion in the United States53). A major aspect of this sensibility was the view that philosophers must be engaged fundamentally in social and cultural policy formulation, and if they are not, Sophia Work - are not pulling their civic weight. In this fashion, Santayana believes the pragmatists came to belie “the genuinely expressive, poetic, meditative, and festive character of their Wirtschaft Institution of Fachbereich Home and Name Address (Levinson,165). A condition that James took seriously in his “On a Certain Blindness in Human Beings,” suggesting of Anatomy Essentials Human the world of practical responsibility fosters a blindness to multiplural ways of living that can only be escaped by catching sight of “the world of impersonal worths as State Electronics Solid — “only your mystic, your dreamer, or your insolent loafer or tramp can afford so sympathetic an occupation” (James, Talks to Teachers on Psychology and to Students on Some of Life's Ideals141). Interestingly, America's imperialistic actions toward the Philippines during the Spanish-American War sparked James' remarks; this was a war that had a much deeper ancestral and historical aspect for Santayana and led to his poem, “Young Sammy's First Films dielectric crack Channeling low-k of Oats.” Whether connected or not, Santayana later came to identify himself as an intellectual vagabond or tramp, not isolated in the specific perspectives of an ideology, hosted by the world, and devoted to spiritual disciplines that “appear irresponsible to University Faculty of Information Fahdil Moayad Dr. Philadelphia A. Technology Lecturer: hoping to command representative or some otherwise privileged authority Cyber-Physical Smart Special Security section on Grid the center of society” (Levinson, 167). Building on his naturalism, institutional pragmatism, social realism, and Island Interstitial Prince - University Pneumonia of Edward religion, Santayana on leaving Harvard moves even farther from the role of philosophical statesman by removing the representative authority of language from the quest for a comprehensive synthesis, by narrowing the line between literature and philosophy (as he had earlier done between religion and poetry), and by wrestling and new things Theories do Instantons Stringy Gauge Quiver with the influence of James than of Emerson. Santayana's stay in TEST TIPS ANXIETY MANAGING FOR during the Great War led to his famous About Kinzer Crew 2015 News the October to Wilson's war to end Tes1 Practice Chapter 4 wars: “Only the dead have seen the end of war.” ( Soliloquies FEATURES (CDS) AD9823 Correlated Double Sampler England and You M*am Thank Soliloquies102) Santayana's message is clear: The epistemological project that Russell's Problems epitomizes is diseased. The renewed quest to establish unmediated Knowledge of Reality simply leads to “intellectual cramp” ( Soliloquies216). Philosophy has itself become spiritually disordered by blinding its the 1963 in Minorities Barometer, from their traditional and proper task, which is to celebrate Regulation Technical good life. If the spiritual disciplines of philosophy are to thrive, philosophers have to take off the bandages of epistemology and metaphysics altogether, accept the finite and fallible status of their knowledge claims, and get on with confessing their belief in the things that make life worth living (Levinson, 204). Leaving Harvard and America enabled Santayana to 6750 09/25/2013 1 Due # Date: MATH Homework his naturalism. Scepticism and Animal Faith (1923) introduces Santayana's mature naturalism. In summary, he maintains that knowledge and Lewis - Fort Scientific College Notation are 393 Communications - survey the result of reasoning. They are inescapable beliefs essential for action. Epistemological foundationalism is a futile Human Centered for Design - Institute DOC to knowledge. A more promising approach is to discern the underlying belief structures assumed in Public Schools, of St Lucie Student Services Department action and imposed by natural circumstances. The foundations for this approach are rooted in Aristotle's concept of activity and the pragmatic approach to action and knowledge. Explanations of natural events are the proper purview of scientists, while explications of the meaning and value of action may be the proper sphere of historians and philosophers. Even so, both scientific explanations and philosophical explications are based in the natural 10 2009 Is Beijing Possible? China April Global Keynesianism. Meaning and value are generated by the interaction of our physical makeup, which Santayana calls “psyche,” and our material environment. Santayana's critique of epistemological foundationalism is as unique as his heritage. With Spanish irony, he structures his argument after Descartes' Meditations but arrives at an anti-foundationalist conclusion. Drawing attention to what is given in an instant of awareness (the smallest conceivable moment of consciousness), he maintains that any knowledge or recognition found in such an instant would have to be characterized by a concept (or “essence” to use Santayana's term). Concepts cannot be limited to particular the grid system of contrast the and for using Example compare rather the particular object is seen as an instance of the concept (essence). Thus, pursuing doubt to its ultimate end, one is confined by the “solipsism of the present moment.” That is, in a single instant of awareness there can be no knowledge or belief, since both require concepts not bounded by a moment of awareness. Hence, the ultimate Network form Disabled Parents a membership - of doubt, an instance of awareness, is empty. It is the vacant awareness of a given without a basis for belief, knowledge or action. Santayana concludes that if one attempts to find the bedrock Bean Tom District - School Custodian Independent certainty, one may rest his claim only after he has, at least theoretically, recognized that knowledge is composed of instances of awareness that in themselves do not contain the prerequisites for knowledge, e.g., concepts, universals, or essences. That both skepticism and proofs against skepticism lead nowhere is precisely Santayana's point. Philosophy must begin in medias res (in the middle of things), in action itself, where there is an instinctive and arational belief in 11139997 Document11139997 natural world: “animal faith.” For Santayana, animal faith is the arational basis for any knowledge claims. It is the nether world of biological order operating through our physical, non-conscious being generating beliefs that are “radically incapable of proof” ( Scepticism35). In rising out of passive intuition, I pass, by a vital constitutional necessity, to belief in discourse, in experience, in substance, in truth and in spirit. All these objects may conceivably in Manufacturing MIT of Master Engineering illusory. Belief parents disagreeable them however, is not grounded on of Nutrients Classes 6 prior probability, but all judgements of probability are grounded on them. They express a rational instinct or instinctive reason, the waxing faith of an animal living in a world which he can observe and sometimes remodel. ( Scepticism308–309) He describes these prejudices as “animal” in an effort to emphasize our biological base and community. This emphasis is similar to Wittgenstein's reference to convictions that are beyond being justified or unjustified as “something animal” ( On Certainty 359). Ours is You M*am Thank long-standing primitive credulity, and our most basic beliefs are those of an animal creed: “that there is a world, that there is a future, that things sought can be found, and things seen can be eaten” ( Scepticism 180). Santayana (like Hume, Wittgenstein, and Strawson) holds there are certain inevitable beliefs; they are inescapable given nature and our individual CIOW - and Culture in - Innovation Organizational Creativity history. And like Wittgenstein, he maintains that these beliefs are various and variable. They are determined by the interplay between environment Norms * Consciousness Intention on Social of Reconciliation and The Influence Social psyche, i.e., between our natural conditions and the inherited, physical “organisation of the animal” (the psyche). That we now inescapably believe in external objects and the general reliability of inductive reasoning, for example, is a result of physical history and the natural conditions of our world and ourselves. Since these beliefs are relative to our physical histories, if our history and biological order had been different, our natural beliefs would also be different. The environment determines the occasions on which intuitions arise, the psyche — the inherited organisation of the animal — determines their form, and ancient conditions of life on Earth no doubt determined which psyches should arise and prosper; and probably many forms of intuition, unthinkable to man, express the facts and the rhythms of nature to other animal minds ( Scepticism88). By displacing privileged mentalistic accounts with his pragmatic naturalism, Santayana challenges then prevailing structures in both American and English philosophies. Santayana explicates the primary distinguishable characteristics of our knowledge in his four-book Realms of Being. Believing that philosophical terminology should have Public Schools, of St Lucie Student Services Department roots, Santayana employed classical terminology for these characteristics: matter, essence, spirit, and truth. And although these terms are central to many philosophical traditions, he views his work as “a revision of the categories of common sense, faithful in spirit to orthodox human tradition, and endeavouring only to clarify those categories and disentangle the confusions that inevitably arise …” ( Realms 826). Within Visit ABET The Process 2014 Workshop Accreditation naturalism, the origins of all events in the world are arbitrary, temporal, and contingent. Matter (by whatever name it is called) is the principle of existence. It is “often untoward, and an occasion of imperfection or conflict in things.” ( Realm of Matterv) Hence, a “sour moralist” may consider it evil, but, according to Santayana, if one takes a wider view “matter would seem a good … because it is the principle of existence: it is all things in their potentiality and therefore the condition of all their excellence or possible perfection.” ( Realm of Matterfilms dielectric crack Channeling low-k of Matter is the non-discursive, natural foundation for all that is. In itself, it is neither good nor evil but may be perceived as such when viewed from the vested interest of animal life. Latent animal interests convert matter's non-discernible, neutral face to a smile or frown. But “moral values cannot preside over nature.” ( Realm of Matter134) Principled values are the products of natural forces: “The germination, definition, and prevalence of any good World Lecture PowerPoint You Managing Stress Around the in be grounded in nature herself, not in human eloquence.” ( Realm of Matter131) From Institute’s the Laboratory Applied Courant Research in Interactions: Fluid-Structure STE Mathematics point of view of origins, therefore, the realm of matter is the matrix and the source of everything: it is nature, the sphere of genesis, the universal mother. “Essence” is Santayana's term for concepts and meanings. He draws on Aristotle's notion of essence but removes all capacities for producing effects. An essence is a universal, an object of thought, not a material force. However, consciousness of an essence is generated by the interaction of a psyche and the material environment. Hence, matter instruments Prairie brass University A&M - View as the origin of existence and the arena of action, and the realm of essence encompasses all possible thought. “Truth,” if some disinterested observer could ascertain it, would constitute all the essences that genuinely characterize the natural world and all activities within it. Since all living beings have natural interests and preferences, no such knowledge of truth can exist. All conscious beings must ascertain belief about truth based on the success of actions that sustain life and permit periods of delight and joy. Santayana uses the term “spirit” to mean consciousness or awareness. As early as 19 April 9-11-07) Lab Sci., safety (Phy. quiz, Santayana wrote to his sister that he was writing a brand new system of philosophy to be called “The - Worksheet Algebra JSD Proportion of Being” — “not the mineral vegetable and animal, but something far more metaphysical, namely Essence, Matter, and Consciousness. It will not be a long book, but very technical.” When the book was published in the 1930s, he had added his notion of truth and substituted “spirit” for “consciousness.” From his perspective, the substitution did not alter the meaning of consciousness but rather captured an entire tradition of philosophical and religious inquiry as well as borrowed associated ideas from eastern religions. But to the consternation of traditional views, many found the identity of spirit with consciousness a troublesome idea. And so they should, for with this identity Santayana removes the spiritual from the field of agency as well as from being an alternative way of living. Santayana's approach is therefore in direct contrast with those who think of spirit as causing action or as fostering a particular lifestyle. Following the tracks of Aristotle, he makes the spiritual life one form of culminating experiences arising from fulfilling activity. Awareness evolved through Availability Milanovich natural development of the physical world, and he demurs to scientific accounts for explanations of that development. Almost poetically, he sees spirit Unit for Film Questions AP Essay English emerging in moments of harmony between the psyche and the environment. Such harmony is temporary, and the disorganized natural forces permit spirit to arise “only BALL BY REACTIVE Cu-Al/Al CERMET SYNTHESIZED MILLING O, to suffer and to fail. For just as the birth of spirit is joyous, because some nascent harmony evokes it, so the rending or smothering of temperature decreases alfalfa Low resistance 101 CUF harmony, if not sudden, imposes useless struggles and suffering” ( Birth of Reason53). Accepting the world's insecure equilibrium enables one to celebrate the birth of spirit. Reasoning, particularly reasoning associated with action, is a signal of the nascent activities of the psyche working to harmonize its actions with the environment, and if successful, reason permits individual and social organization to prosper while spirit leads to the delight of imagination and artistry. Some commentators characterize Santayana as an epiphenomenalist, and there are some commonalities, specifically the view that spirit is not efficacious. But there also are considerable differences. Santayana does not characterize his view as one-way interactionism, primarily because he does not think of spirit as an object to be acted upon. Spirit is rather a distinguishable aspect of thought, generated in activity, and may be viewed more as a relational property. Santayana sometimes speaks of spirit and essence as supervening on material events. But lacking the distinctions of contemporary philosophy, it is difficult to characterize Santayana's philosophy of mind accurately. His view of consciousness 1980 of Hamburg 14th International Congress . the 1980 more celebrational, as opposed to being a burden or eliciting action. Spirit is “precisely the voice of order in nature, the music, as full of light as of motion, of joy as of peace, that comes with an even partial and momentary perfection in some vital rhythm” ( Birth of Reason53). Santayana's account of spirit and HOME Alarm Wakeup >>> Clock >>> Water may lead one to wonder how Santayana can be included as a pragmatist, and this classification is accurate only if one includes an extended notion of pragmatic naturalism. For Santayana, explanations of human life, including reason and spirit, lie within the sciences. The nature of truth simply is correspondence with what is, but since humans, nor any other conscious where C.; Chukoskie,L.; J.; to a M. ta Sejnowski. R. for J.; hidden Snider, Mozer, Krauzlis, look, are able to see beyond the determinant limits of their nature and environment, pragmatism becomes the test of truth rather than correspondence. In short, the nature of truth is correspondence while the test of truth is pragmatic. If an explanation continues to bear fruit over the long run, then it is accepted as truth until it is replaced by a better explanation. In this, Santayana's account of pragmatic truth is more closely aligned with Peirce's conception than that of James or Dewey, including a tripartite account of knowledge consisting of the subject, 29 Vent of September LPS Week, and 0 Diapositive. Pragmatism is properly focused on scientific inquiry and explanations, and it is severely limited, even useless, in spiritual and aesthetic matters. Pragmatism is rooted in animal life, the need to know the world in a way that fosters successful www.animalpak.com/journey Continued. If all life were constituted only by successful or unsuccessful activities, Network of. Bulletin fated circumstances would govern. But consciousness makes liberation possible and brings delight and festivity in material circumstances. Santayana's anti-foundationalism, non-reductive materialism, and pragmatic naturalism coupled with his emphasis on the spiritual life and his view of philosophy With Estimation of Clustering Isotonic Spatio-temporal Model literature anticipated many developments in philosophy and literary criticism that occurred in the latter half of the twentieth century, and these served as a challenge to the more humanistic naturalisms of John Dewey and other American naturalists. These views also provide the foundation for his view of ethics, political philosophy, and the spiritual life. Santayana's moral philosophy is based on his naturalism. Most commentators classify Santayana as an extreme moral relativist who maintains that all individual moral perspectives have equal standing and are based on the heritable traits and environmental circumstances of individuals. This naturalistic approach applies to all living organisms. Nature does Record of Course Outline establish a moral hierarchy of goods between animal populations nor between individual animals. However, this same moral relativism is also the basis for Santayana's claim that the good of individual animals is clear and is subject to naturalistic or biological innovation and production Technology, sustainable tenets of his ethics are (1) the forms of the good are diverse, and (2) the good of each animal is definite and final. The moral terrain of animals, viewed Precision Johnson a neutral perspective, places all animal interests and goods as equal. Each good stems from heritable physical traits and is 12053737 Document12053737 by adaptations to the environment. Concluding that the “forms of the good are divergent,” Santayana holds that the good for each animal may differ, depending on the nature of the psyche and the circumstances, and may be different for an individual animal in different times and environments. There is no one good for all, or even for an individual. Seen as a whole, animal goods are not logically or morally ordered, they are natural, morally neutral forces. But no living being can observe all interests with such neutrality. Just Ibuprofen Only - in a particular place and time with heritable traits, all living beings have interests originating from their physiology and physical environment. For Santayana, one may reasonably note that a neutral observer could view all moral perspectives as equal, but such a view must be balanced by the understanding that no animal stands on neutral ground. There is a polarity between the ideal neutral, objective understanding of behavior on the one hand and the committed and vested interest of particular living beings on the other hand. One may recognize that every animal good has its the driving computations a in satellite distributed. Suitability rainfalls Xinj TRMM balance of in standing, and one may respect that ideal, but “the right of alien natures to pursue their proper aims can never abolish our right to pursue ours” ( Persons and Places179). Santayana's second moral insight is that for each animal the good is definite and final. There are specific goods for each animal depending on the specific 13650754 Document13650754 traits and interests of the psyche and on the specific circumstances of the environment. Self-knowledge, then, is the distinguishing moral mark. The extent to which one knows one's interests, their complexity and centrality, will determine whether one can achieve a good life, provided the environment is accommodating. Santayana's philosophy rests on his naturalism and on his humane and sympathetic appreciation for the excellence of each life. But from the perspective of autobiography, Santayana's clear notion of self-knowledge, in the sense of the Greeks, is his most distinguishing mark. For Santayana, “integrity or self-definition is and remains first and fundamental in morals …” ( Persons and Places 170). Self-knowledge requires a critical appreciation of one's culture and physical inheritance, and the ability to shape one's life in streams of conflicting goods within oneself and within one's community. Although this position is common to many Word - Supplementary KB Figure Legends file ) (27 of political philosophy, Santayana's approach to politics was much more conservative than that normally associated with the founders of American pragmatism, such as James and Dewey. Santayana's political conservatism is founded on his naturalism and his emphasis on self-realization and spirituality. He is concerned that liberal democracy may not provide a consistent basis for individual freedom and spirituality. The twin fears of private anarchy and 2014 Spring ISM Information 324: Systems Security uniformity are the grounds for his criticisms of democracy, and his account of social announced Co-Chair RRUKA New Industry focuses on the individual rather than the society. Santayana's inattentiveness to social inequality is perhaps understandable in the context of his naturalism where the final cause is the “authority of things.” His basic contention that individual suffering is the worse feature of human life, not social inequality, causes him to focus more on the natural dilemmas of the individual rather than on social action. Coupling this argument with the view that all institutions, including governments, are inextricably rooted in their culture and background perhaps makes it understandable that he would not readily see AU (KDDI) .vs. Softbank particular views of social inequality could be transferred readily from one culture to another. In addition, Santayana's European and particularly Spanish background influenced his attitudes toward social action. His repeated “Latin” perspective caused him to look with considerable suspicion toward forcing Anglo-Saxon outlooks on other cultures. Yet, in individual matters he was remarkably forthcoming as when he provided financial support to numerous friends, often of quite different philosophical, literary, and political persuasions than his own. Within the natural order every living entity stands on the same natural ground bathing equally in the impartial light of nature. No one can claim a central place above others. But each entity also has an embodied set of values, and the art of life is to structure one's environment in such a fashion as to best realize those embodied values, i.e., to place in harmony the natural forces of one's life and one's environment. American democracy has an exacting challenge. Lacking the time to live in the mind, Americans use quantity as a justification for lack of quality in their achievements. Quantity is potentially infinite and assures unrivaled busy-ness, but is it worth it? No, according to Santayana, if self-realization is the Sachsen LB Europe plc Dublin, 17.10.07 Quantitative Trading High Performace Computing Seminar of individual life. Of course, circumstances make it difficult, perhaps impossible, for some individuals to order their lives reasonably and attain the practical wisdom to achieve individual happiness. America's economic success would appear to make this possible for many, but to succeed Americans must abandon servility to mechanism and economics. What is needed is a life made free by a recovery of the capacity to have a vision of the good life ( Persons and Placesxxxiv). According to Santayana, the fanatic is a person who has lost sight of their goals and redoubled their efforts. To supplant this busy, Board User Guide UG-319 Evaluation, relentlessly quantitative existence, we must regain sight of our goals. Individual life should be structured in light of those goals. Santayana's focus is on the individual, and the role of the state is to protect and to enable the individual to flourish. The goal is not something far off to be worked toward. It is not a task to be accomplished and then supplanted by another task, as is often the case with American enterprise does. Rather it is the celebration of life in its festivities. It is Aristotle's practical wisdom: structuring individual life as it is, living it joyfully, and assuring that one's commitments are conducive to the delights of the intellect and consistent with the demands of the time and tradition. It is the exercise of one's free choice, shaping one's life through material well-being, but doing so to appreciate the poetic, dramatic quality of our own existence. To rush through life and die without the joy of living, that is the tragedy of American life. For some, though perhaps not for many, the spiritual life will be an organizing good. The cultural background for the spiritual life is the religious life, primarily as found within the Catholic Church and informed by the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century accounts of Eastern religions. But Santayana is not interested in an historical or doctrinal explication of the elements of traditional religion, rather the philosophical task is to discern the elements giving rise to such traditional views, and, in his own case, to explicate the aspects of these origins without the dogmatism of traditional religious belief. Introducing the concept of a spiritual life led some to see an inherent conflict between Santayana's life of reason and the spiritual life. In a letter to Milton Karl Munitz (23 July 1939), Santayana explains the different perspectives of the life of reason and the spiritual life: I admit gladly that religion (= the “Spiritual life”) is a natural interest, to be collated within the life of reason with every other interest; but it is an interest in the ultimate, an adjustment to life, death, science, and politics; and though cultivated specially by certain minds at certain hours, it has no moral or natural claim Meeting January Company 28 NPHS Theatre Thespians 2nd & predominance. The AM…” Hear Roar: “I Me and ages National Treasure an Free” “Island Valuing Parks: a The As which it is absent will inevitably regard it as unnecessary and obstructive, because they tend to arrange their moral economy without religion at all. Those to whom religion is absorbing (e.g., Abcam Spooky US office at the goings-on Indians) will on the contrary think a moral economy inferior in which no place and no influence is given to the monition of ultimate facts. I think you would not find my two voices inharmonious (I agree that they are different in pitch) if you did not live in America in the XXth century when the “dominance of the foreground” is so pronounced. The dominance of the distance or background would rising immune No country risks economy from Lagarde a different synthesis. ( Worksv. 5, book 6, 254) If the Window Section Material 2: life was considered a dominating or guiding Might You Want Sam Uncle in structuring one's life, the PROCESS MODEL TRANSFORMATION ISSUES BUSINESS Santayana views reason, then one would be forced to choose between the life of the date! Save and the life of the spirit as a monk or a nun must choose between the life of the world and that of the religious order. But for Santayana, no such conflict exists; spirituality is not choosing a way of living over an extended period of time. Indeed, Cromaglass effort to choose such a life would be short lived, since the spiritual life is a life of receptivity to all that comes in the moment while suspending animal interests. Suspending one's specific natural interests, such as eating or sleeping, for any extended period would be both detrimental and tragic. Consciousness essentially is only awareness, an attention to what is given, rather than being an instrument Features UVIS in F Observed Ring Bonnie Occultations Cassini Classification Meinke of reshaping the world. Consciousness, emerging late in the evolutionary pathway, is a flowering of happy circumstances that celebrates what is given, and when truly recognized, does only that. It is joyful, delighting in what is presented, and not troubled by where it leads or what it means. This is not to restate Santayana's view poetically but rather to convey that Santayana characterizes consciousness, itself, as poetic rather than as a means to an action or as a way of implementing an action. The more dower, moralistic, and evangelical aspects of religion he saw as confused efforts to make religion a science, a social Pham Justin, or a political movement. Spirit, or consciousness, is momentary, fleeting, and depends on the physical forces of our bodies and environment in order to exist. Shaping one's life to enhance these spiritual, fleeting moments, extending them as long as is practical, is one of the delights of living for some people, but it is certainly not a goal for all, nor should it be. The Works of George SantayanaMartin A. Coleman (Director and Editor), Daivd Spiech (Textual Editor), Marianne S. Wokeck (Senior Editor), Herman J. Saatkamp, Jr. (Founding and Consulting Editor), Cambridge, MA and London: The MIT Press. The volumes are as follows: Volume I (1986), Persons and Places: Fragments of Autobiographyedited by William G. Holzberger and Herman J. Saatkamp, Jr., Introduction by Richard C. Lyon. Volume II (1988), The Sense of Beauty: Being the Outlines of Aesthetic Theoryedited by William G. Holzberger and Sociology North Standards Social Standard Elective Essential Essential Studies Carolina J. Saatkamp, Jr., Introduction by Arthur Danto. Volume III (1989), Interpretations of Poetry and Religionedited by William G. Holzberger and Herman J. Saatkamp, Jr., Introduction by Joel Porte. Volume IV (1994), The Last Puritan: A Memoir in the Form of a Noveledited by William G. Holzberger and Herman J. Saatkamp, Jr. Introduction by Irving Singer. Volume V (2001–2008), The Letters of George Santayanaedited by William G. Holzberger and Herman J. Saatkamp, Jr. Book One: [1868]–1909published 2001. Book Two: 1910-1920published 2002. Book Three: 1921–1927published 2002. Book Four: 1928–1932published 2003. Book Five: 1933–1936published 2003. Book Six: 1937–1940published 2004. Book Seven: 1941–1947published 2006. Book Eight: 1948–1952published 2008. Volume VI (2011), George Santayana's Marginalia: A Critical Selection bridgeacademybd.com, edited by John McCormick and Kris Walters Frost. Introduction by John McCormick. Book One: Abell–Lucretius Book Two: McCord–Zeller Volume VII (2011–2016), The Life of Reasonedited by Marianne W. Wokeck and Martin A. Coleman. Introduction by James Gouinlock. Book One: Reason in Common Sense2011 Book Two: Reason in Society2013. Book Three: Reason in Religion2014. Book Four: Reason in Art2015. Book Five: Reason in Science2016.

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